How to take antibiotics?

Antibiotics are modern, effective medicines that help the body fight certain infections and can save lives when used properly. Their main task is to prevent the growth of bacteria or even destroy them. Let’s consider in more detail what are the rules for taking antibiotics so as not to harm your health.

Table of contents:

  1. When do doctors prescribe antibiotics?
  2. What are the principles of taking antibiotics?
  3. Rules for taking antibiotics in the form of tablets and capsules
  4. What should not be done with antibiotics?
    1. Prohibited Medicines
    2. Do not crush tablets
    3. Ban on sunbathing when taking antibiotics
    4. Do not play sports
  5. What is the proper nutrition for antibiotic therapy?
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

The immune system kills most bacteria even before they begin to multiply in the body. White blood cells attack harmful bacteria, and even if a person develops symptoms, the immune system can usually fight the infection. However, there are times when the number of harmful bacteria exceeds the permissible number, and the immune system cannot cope with them all. It is in this case that people turn to antibiotics.

Antibiotics are medicines that help stop infections caused by bacteria [1]. One of the negative features of antimicrobial drugs is that many microorganisms can develop resistance to them, due to which their effectiveness decreases, or is not observed at all. First of all, the cause of this process is an independent, uncontrolled intake or the introduction of drugs of this group in another way.

That is why patients suffering from pathologies provoked by the activity of pathogenic bacteria need to know how to take antibiotics correctly. What consequences may arise when they are thoughtlessly applied?

When do doctors prescribe antibiotics?

Self-medication with antibiotics can be extremely dangerous to health. Unfortunately, not all patients take this into account. Only attending physicians, having established the correct diagnosis, can prescribe the correct antibiotic treatment. It is worth remembering that the use of antimicrobials is impossible and unacceptable with a viral or fungal infection! Antimicrobial drugs do not treat:

  • mycoses
  • candidiasis
  • flu
  • ARI
  • cold
  • enterovirus infections
  • and other diseases of a similar etiology

Antibiotics will be effective in the following bacterial diseases:

  • pneumonia
  • sinusitis
  • frontal
  • ethmoiditis
  • acute otitis media
  • meningitis
  • sore throat
  • cystitis, etc.

In these cases, the appointment of antibiotics is not only advisable but sometimes it is also vital. Also, sometimes doctors prescribe drugs of this group for prevention. But it is impossible to prevent certain diseases with these medicines on their own. Otherwise, there is a high probability of side effects and severe poisoning.

What are the principles of taking antibiotics?

what are the principles of taking antibiotics

The main guarantee of effective and safe antibiotic treatment without harm to health is to seek the advice of a doctor. When symptoms of the disease appear, a person should not self-medicate. He should seek help from a specialist. The attending physician will diagnose the disease using various methods and studies. Only after this, the specialist will be able to determine which drugs are better to take during treatment. Nevertheless, certain general rules must be followed when taking a course of antibiotic therapy.

  1. The patient should take only those antibiotics that the doctor prescribed, strictly following the dosage and the frequency of taking the tablets indicated by him. The dosage regimen when using certain drugs depends not only on the age but also on the patient’s body weight, as well as on the severity of the disease. The duration of treatment is also set individually. Usually, it lasts from 5 to 7 days, but maybe longer. If we are talking about the prophylactic use of tablets, then the treatment period may be limited to 3 days.
  2. You can not take drugs on your own. The medicine should be suitable for the treatment of a particular disease. Therefore, with self-treatment with antibiotics, it is necessary to study in detail the column with indications for taking a specific drug.
  3. It is unacceptable to use an antimicrobial prescribed for another person, even with the same diagnoses. During the development of the treatment regimen, the doctor is guided not only by the diagnosis but also by the individual characteristics of the body of each patient.
  4. When choosing an antibiotic, an important role is played by the drugs that the patient is currently taking. It is also important to remember whether he has an individual intolerance to any drugs.
  5. The patient should study the annotation to the medicine, paying particular attention to items with contraindications and side effects. It is also important to read the information on compatibility with other medicines and alcohol. Although all antibiotics cannot be combined with alcohol.
  6. For the treatment of adult patients, oral antimicrobials are used primarily in the form of tablets or capsules. Doctors use suspensions and syrups to treat young children.
  7. A person should pay special attention to the rules for taking antibiotics. Some of them should be drunk before meals, others after or directly with meals.
  8. The patient should carefully monitor the dosage regimen of the drug. Dosage of antibiotics may vary depending on the day of treatment. For example, some types of antibiotics need to be taken in a double dosage on the first day, and the usual in the rest. At the same time, the disease that is treated with these drugs is of no small importance. In particular, with syphilis or gonorrhea, doctors often prescribe shock doses of the drug, which must be taken at the very beginning of the therapeutic course.
  9. If the patient must take the drug 1 tablet or capsule per day, then he needs to do this at the same hour, for example, at 8.00 or 9.00 every morning. With a double daily use of the drug, the interval between doses should be 12 hours, with four times – 6 hours, and so on. It is important to understand that medicine is used not 2 times a day, but twice a day.

Rules for taking antibiotics in the form of tablets and capsules

Incorrect antibiotic therapy is fraught with serious health problems. Therefore, it is important to strictly observe the following rules:

  1. Strictly monitor the time of taking the next pill. If necessary, you can put a reminder on the phone, or set the alarm so that it rings at the right time. If the medication was missed, it must be taken immediately after the patient remembered it. In the case when you need to take the drug once a day, but did not drink the pill, it is unacceptable to compensate for this omission with a double dose of the medicine taken the next day.
  2. Do not stop therapy as soon as the symptoms of the disease have disappeared. Firstly, this will lead to a new outbreak of the disease, and it will be more difficult to proceed. Secondly, the abrupt cessation of the use of antibiotics contributes to the development of resistance to the drug by microorganisms, so it will no longer be effective in treating the disease. Also, do not stop therapy if you have difficulty taking the pill. Some patients complain that it is difficult to swallow a capsule or tablet, or it tastes extremely bad. In this case, it is necessary to report the problem to the attending physician, who can replace the medicine with an analog without harming the patient’s health.
  3. It is unacceptable to take a higher dose than prescribed by the doctor. The effectiveness of therapy does not increase, and the disease does not recede faster. But it is quite realistic to earn intestinal dysbiosis or other side effects.
  4. The patient should drink antibiotics only with clean water without gas.
  5. During the entire course of administration, the patient must take probiotics and prebiotics.

These are the basic rules for taking antibacterial agents, which must be strictly observed. If problems arise during the treatment, side effects appear, or even a single overdose occurs, you should immediately inform your doctor.

What should not be done with antibiotics?

In addition to how to properly take antibacterial drugs, there are some prohibitions regarding this process. They can not be broken and it is important to remember well.

Do not drink the drug with anything other than clean water. Many patients prefer to drink antibacterial tablets or capsules with different juices, milk, dairy products, coffee or tea. It is impossible to do this since such drinks negatively affect the absorption of the drug in the intestine. As a result, the effectiveness of the medication taken is reduced. To avoid negative consequences, it is necessary to drink antibiotics only with non-carbonated water at room temperature. Drinking a full glass of liquid will help to avoid side effects in the form of pain in the stomach or nausea.

Prohibited Medicines

Not all medications can be combined with antibiotics. First of all, this applies to alcohol-based products. It is also worth noting that some mouthwashes may also contain ethanol, which is easily absorbed through the mucous membranes. Therefore, before using them when taking a course of antibiotic therapy, it is necessary to study the composition of the drug in detail.

Women should remember that antibiotics tend to reduce the effectiveness of oral hormonal contraceptives. Therefore, their use must be reported to the attending physician. He will tell the patient how to prevent pregnancy before the end of the course of treatment with antimicrobial drugs.

Do not crush tablets

Many patients decide to break up the tablets so that the antibiotic is easier to take. This, in most cases, this is unacceptable, especially in the case of film-coated tablets. This will lead to the fact that the medication will act ineffectively.

An exception is only chewable antibacterial tablets. Besides, the attending physician may allow the drug to be divided in half if its dosage is higher than prescribed. This approach is possible only if there is a special mark for separation on the tablet surface.

ban on sunbathing when taking antibiotics

Ban on sunbathing when taking antibiotics

Doctors do not recommend sunbathing on the beach or in the solarium while taking the antibiotic. Some antimicrobial medicines tend to increase the photosensitivity of the body, resulting in photodermatitis. But at best, a tan will simply be uneven.

Do not play sports

Antibiotics have many side effects, including heart rhythm disturbance, dizziness, headache, and weakness. Intensive sports can aggravate the manifestation of these symptoms, which will negatively affect the general well-being of the patient.

In addition, some antimicrobial drugs may interfere with the functioning of the musculoskeletal system. In this regard, the risk of sprain or tearing of the ligaments increases. Therefore, with sports, it is better to wait until the termination of antibiotic therapy. However, walking in the fresh air at a slow and medium pace is allowed.

What is the proper nutrition for antibiotic therapy?

Not all doctors warn their patients about the need to introduce certain dietary restrictions. The fact is that oral antibiotics are absorbed in the stomach, and nothing should impede this process. Otherwise, the effect will be incomplete. Therefore, the patient should refuse the following products so that antibiotic treatment has the maximum effect.

  • Fried and fatty dishes. When they are used, the antibacterial tablet is absorbed much more slowly. Also, certain changes occur in the mechanism of its action.
  • Protein food. Meat, fish, eggs – all these products also slow down the process of absorption of the antibiotic in the intestine. Besides, they exert an excessive load on the liver and kidneys. Antibacterial drugs also have this effect. Therefore, before the end of the course of treatment, protein products should, if not be completely excluded, at least be consumed in minimal quantities.
  • Sweets. Doctors do not recommend using them because of the high degree of allergy development. Also, they create an additional burden on the heart and stomach. This is extremely undesirable when taking antibiotics.
  • Sour food. This is especially true for fruits and berries. Firstly, they can significantly enhance the effect of some antimicrobial agents or reduce it. Secondly, there is an increased risk of increased gastric acidity with subsequent occurrence of heartburn.

Caution should also be exercised with the use of coffee and strong tea while taking antibiotics. To avoid allergic reactions and the development of problems with cardiac activity, it is better to refuse energy drinks before the end of antibacterial therapy. Fermented foods can also help restore the gut microbiota after damage caused by antibiotics [2].

what is the proper nutrition for antibiotic therapy

Conclusion

The invention of antibiotics is an important step of mankind in the fight against infectious diseases. These medicines save millions of lives every year. However, their application has several restrictions and rules. Unfortunately, not following these rules leads to the natural development of bacteria. As a result of this, pathogenic agents are no longer susceptible to the effects of many antibiotics. In some cases, improper administration of drugs leads to negative consequences for a person, up to death. To avoid these unpleasant problems, everyone should take antibiotics seriously, and strictly observe all of the above rules and recommendations of the attending physician. In this case, no additional problems and complications will not bother the patient.

References

[1] Learn about what are antibiotics by the link https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-are-antibiotics#1

[2] Visit the resource https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/what-to-eat-antibiotics and find out, what you should eat during and after antibiotics

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