Pharyngitis is the pathology of the human upper respiratory tract. The disease is characterized by inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa. The disorder is accompanied by dryness and sore throat. This pathology very rarely occurs in isolation. We will consider the symptoms and treatment of the disease in this article.
Table of contents:
- Causes of the disease
- What are the signs of pharyngitis?
- Differential diagnosis of pharyngitis
- Treatment of the acute form of the disease
- Comprehensive treatment
- Augmentin is a powerful remedy for pharyngitis
- What is the release form of the antibiotic?
- How to take the drug?
- Use of the drug during pregnancy
- Where to buy Augmentin?
- Useful links
What is pharyngitis? This is a disease in which the inflammatory process in the pharynx affects its mucous membrane and lymphoid tissue. Symptoms of pharyngitis are similar to other diseases of the pharynx: sore throat, tingling sensation, dry surface cough. Late or improper treatment of pharyngitis is dangerous by the transition to the chronic form of the disease, severe complications, the spread of infection in the body and damage to other tissues and organs. It is necessary to distinguish diseases similar in symptomatology and methods of their treatment, so, in case of a sore throat, they can speak of pharyngitis, laryngitis, tonsillitis and other diseases, and their combinations.
Causes of the disease
The disease is caused by various factors. Pharyngitis has an infectious etiology, the process develops under the influence of an infectious agent. Among the most frequent pathogens of the acute form of the disease are:
- viruses (parainfluenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, coronavirus, influenza virus, herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, Coxsackie, HIV, etc.
- pathogenic microorganisms: staphylococcus of different groups, pneumococcus, Hemophilus bacillus, and others
- fungi, most often of the genus Candida
With group effects on the pharyngeal mucosa of various infectious agents, they speak about the association of pathogens: viral-bacterial, viral-fungal, etc. Such forms of the disease require combination therapy.
Among the causes of the acute form of the disease, pharyngitis of allergic etiology, diseases arising from exposure to irritating factors of a chemical or physical nature (internal, external injuries of the pharynx area) are also distinguished.
A long inflammatory process of the pharyngeal mucosa provokes the development of a chronic form of the disease. The factors contributing to the occurrence of chronic forms include the following groups:
- frequent diseases of the nasopharynx of a bacterial nature (cold), frequent or chronic diseases of the nasopharynx (sinusitis, tonsillitis) and oral cavity (caries, stomatitis, gingivitis, etc.), failure to comply with hygiene
- prolonged or permanent exposure of the mucous membrane of the pharynx to chemical irritants due to bad habits, working in adverse conditions, living in an environmentally hazardous environment, non-compliance with the rules for handling household or building chemistry, some diseases. The most common irritants include tobacco smoke, alcohol, evaporation of paints and varnishes, chlorine-containing materials, some topical medications, stomach contents during gastroesophageal reflux, frequent vomiting, regurgitation, etc.
- physical impact on the pharynx with the frequent use of spicy, hot, cold food, inhalation of hot, excessively dry, cold air, air masses with inclusions (dust, fine particles of materials, sand)
- long-term allergic reaction, most often with pollinosis or an allergy to domestic animals, dust mite
- professional factor: constant tension of the pharyngeal muscles of lecturers, announcers, singers, guides, teachers, etc.
- endocrine disorders and diseases accompanied by Sjogren’s syndrome: insufficient production of salivary glands, causing drying of the mucous membrane of the pharynx surface
What are the signs of pharyngitis?
Depending on the form of the disease, the symptoms of the disease also differ.
Disease in the acute stage
The first symptom of the disease is discomfort in the throat. With increasing symptoms in the clinical picture are observed:
- tickling sensation, dry pharyngeal mucosa, throat “scratches”, “sores”; sore throat
- discomfort when swallowing
- dry cough, which increases pain in the throat
- swelling, hyperemia of the posterior pharyngeal wall or palatine arches
- inflammation of the lymphoid grains, the formation of mucopurulent plaque on them with a bacterial etiology of the disease
- irradiation of pain to the ear, auditory passages
- an increase in the cervical, occipital, submandibular lymph nodes, tenderness to palpation
- general signs of indisposition: weakness, deterioration of health, headache, fever
With the development of complications, otitis, mastoiditis, sinusitis, purulent tonsillitis, purulent lymphadenitis may join, and purulent abscesses in the throat may form.
The chronic form of the disease is divided into several types:
- granular or hypertrophic appearance
- atrophic or sub atrophic
- mixed type
- catarrhal chronic form
The chronic form of the disease proceeds without pronounced signs of deterioration of health. The main symptom is discomfort in the throat area: tickling, a feeling of dryness, a foreign body in the throat, an obsessive dry cough without mucus. In the pharynx, there is a cluster of viscous sputum.
When atrophic pharyngitis develops the process of thinning the mucous membrane, its drying. Visually inspecting the effect of “varnished surface” with the inclusion of dried crusts. The hypertrophic chronic form is manifested by the proliferation of lymphoid tissue on the back of the pharynx and/or an increase in tubopharyngeal ridges.
With the exacerbation of the chronic course of the disease, the symptoms are complemented by hyperemia, edema, deterioration of well-being.
Differential diagnosis of pharyngitis
Sore throats can result from a variety of underlying medical conditions. While viral infections are the most common cause of pharyngitis, it is still important to correctly diagnose the cause in order to treat the condition successfully .
The disease requires differentiation due to the similarity of symptoms and the possible addition of inflammatory processes in other parts of the pharynx. With the same sensations, the diseases may have different etiologies, a lesion area, a course, and complications. So, in the presence of a sore throat, patients can talk about pharyngitis, and specialists share pharyngitis and tonsillitis, laryngitis, as well as mixed diagnoses (laryngopharyngitis). Symptoms and treatment can be very close both in clinical manifestations and in therapy methods, however, it is necessary to consult a specialist in each case to diagnose the disease and receive appointments. Attempts of self-diagnosis can lead to a deterioration of the condition, the transition of the disease into a chronic form, the development of serious complications.
Primary diagnostics is carried out by an ENT doctor with the help of a visual examination of the patient’s mouth and pharynx, taking anamnesis, analyzing the patient’s complaints. If a visual inspection is not enough, the instrumental method is used.
To identify the causative agent and the cause of the disease, a microbiological smear test, a blood test for the presence of antibodies to streptococcus, general indicators, and urinalysis for sugar are performed. If you suspect a chronic inflammatory process, diagnosis is carried out by the method of endoscopic examination of the larynx, pharynx and nasal cavity.
Treatment of the acute form of the disease
Treatment is carried out on an outpatient basis. The priority is to exclude factors that irritate the mucous membranes of the pharynx: spicy, sour, salty foods, excessively hot and cold foods, drinks, smoking, alcohol, vocal cord tension, being in a smoky, polluted space, etc.
It is advisable to grind food before use, except for dishes that can injure the inflamed mucosa (nuts, seeds, crackers, etc.). The patient must drink at least 1.5-2 liters of fluid per day, preferably unsweetened compotes, diluted fruit drinks, rosehip tea in a heated form, herbal teas.
General recommendations for maintaining the temperature in the room where the sick person is located, within 21-22 ° C and humidity not less than 60%, also apply. The patient is recommended to refrain from physical exertion and excessive activity. Bed rest is prescribed in the presence of a pronounced clinical picture of intoxication of the body, severe course of the disease, and the general weakness of the body.
In some cases, medical treatment is necessary for pharyngitis. This is especially the case if it’s caused by a bacterial infection. For such instances, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics .
Drug treatment of pharyngitis is carried out with the dynamic observation of a physician. The prescription of drugs of local and general action, auxiliary therapeutic procedures has two directions: reduction of local inflammatory or allergic reaction, reduction of mucosal edema, and active influence on the causes of the disease (with the proven presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the etiology of the disease).
There are several groups of drugs used in this disease:
- anti-inflammatory, antiseptic agents of local action (solutions for rinsing, inhalations, lubrication of the pharyngeal mucosa, sprays, tablets and other forms of resorption medications)
- analgesics of local or general effect
- if necessary: antipyretics, antibiotics, antiviral drugs, local immunostimulants, etc.
In acute pharyngitis, the symptoms of which are expressed in a vivid form, it is recommended to take combined anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs in the form of sprays or aerosols. Tablets and lozenges are used for mild illness.
Regular (3-5 times a day) gargling is considered the most important and highly effective treatment for the acute form of the disease. You can use ready-made antiseptic solutions, decoctions of herbs (calendula, chamomile, peppermint), salt solutions, a combination of baking soda and salt, etc. The greatest therapeutic effect is achieved with a combination of antiseptics and soda-salt solutions.
Inhalation methods are also used to treat the disease. With this disease, it is possible to use both modern nebulizers and inhalers, as well as old methods of vapor inhalation over a container with a hot decoction of herbs, since the penetration of vapor particles into the lower respiratory tract is not required.
Important: when choosing drugs for inhalation, you should consult with your doctor, otherwise you should limit yourself with saline or mineral water. When inhaling steam above a container with a decoction of herbs, one should be aware of possible allergies to some medicinal plants, limit the temperature of the liquid and not use this method at elevated body temperature.
Augmentin is a powerful remedy for pharyngitis
There are many drugs to fight bacterial infections, and Augmentin is one of the most common remedies of this kind. It is widely used for the treatment of acute respiratory diseases and is suitable for both adults and children. The main active ingredients of Augmentin are two substances. First of all, it is semi-synthetic antibiotic amoxicillin, belonging to the penicillin group. The second substance is clavulanic acid.
It is worth noting that Augmentin still the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in the world. It affects various types of bacteria, therefore it is a broad-spectrum drug.
When taken orally, the tablets are rapidly absorbed into the blood from the intestines. A few hours after taking Augmentin, the concentration of its components in the blood reaches a maximum. They are evenly distributed in all tissues and body fluids. Such a uniform concentration of amoxicillin provides a universal and lasting therapeutic effect.
What is the release form of the antibiotic?
Augmentin is available in various forms that are suitable for both adults and children, such as:
- long-acting tablets
- powder for suspension
- powder for solution preparation (intravenous or infusion administration of the drug)
Most often, Augmentin in the form of tablets is used for treatment in adulthood. They may have the following dosage options (mg amoxicillin + mg clavulanic acid):
- 250 + 125mg
- 500 + 125mg
- 750 + 250mg
in addition, some excipients are included in the Augmentin tablets. Suspensions are also available in various dosages (400, 200, and 125 mg of amoxicillin per 5 ml).
How to take the drug?
You should take Augmentin exclusively on doctor’s prescription, self-medication with antibiotics is unacceptable! The standard dosage of Augmentin in the form of tablets in case of a light infection in adults is 250 + 125 mg three times a day. In more severe cases, tablets of 500 + 125 mg are prescribed three times a day. Or you can take 2 tablets Augmentina 750 + 250 mg per day.
It should be borne in mind that Augmentin should be taken at strictly defined and equal time intervals. For example, if a drug is prescribed 3 times a day, then it should be taken every 8 hours. If you need to take pills 2 times a day, then it should be done every 12 hours. This technique allows you to maintain a constant concentration of the drug in the tissues of the body.
In case of an overdose of the drug, negative symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract occur first. In this case, you should stop taking the antibiotic and report the incident to your doctor.
Augmentin is well tolerated by patients. Negative side effects are much less common than in the case of other antibiotics. However, they are not excluded.
Most often it is dysbiosis. This is because almost any antibiotic destroys not only pathogenic microorganisms but also those that make up normal microflora, which lives primarily in the intestines.
Side effects associated with the nervous system (dizziness, headaches, anxiety, insomnia), allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, dyspepsia, and discoloration of tooth enamel are not excluded. If skin allergies occur, antibiotic treatment should be stopped.
It is undesirable to take Augmentin for certain diseases and conditions. Such situations include:
- intolerance to individual components of the drug
- a negative reaction to other drugs of the penicillin group in history
- phenylketonuria (for suspension)
- renal failure
- age up to 12 years or weight up to 40 kg (for tablets)
Use of the drug during pregnancy
Many women are interested in the question, is it possible to use the drug in such situations? The unequivocal answer to this account does not exist. A doctor treating an infection in a pregnant woman should correctly evaluate all the information and only then appoint Augmentin. The components of the drug can penetrate breast milk and through the placental barrier. However, there is no information that Augmentin can harm a child. Besides, an infection that is in the mother’s body can cause the child much more trouble than Augmentin.
Where to buy Augmentin?
Everyone knows the value of the money earned and tries to purchase a quality product at the best price. Therefore, we recommend that you pay attention to a certified online pharmacy. Unlike the local pharmacy, such a pharmacy has several advantages:
- Low price. Low cost, additional discounts for regular customers are the main advantages of online pharmacy
- High-quality service. Specialists work 24/7 to provide you with the best services
- Security. All transactions are encrypted using the SSL protocol and are not accessible to hackers. You can not worry that someone will find out about your purchase
- Fast shipping. Representatives of the pharmacy will pack the goods you purchased in a solid non-transparent packaging and send it to the address you specified
- You can buy any amount of medicines, regardless of the instructions in the recipe
These are not all the advantages that an online pharmacy has over your local one. Therefore, modern people buy products exclusively online. Try it and you!
 Read more facts about pharyngitis by the link https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324144.php
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