How to treat bacterial infections of the urinary tract?

Doctors often diagnose problems with organs of the genitourinary systems in patients. There is an opinion that only older people suffer from such pathologies. However, it is not. Age does not affect the possibility of the disease. Most of the disorders of the genitourinary system in the early stages do not have pronounced symptoms, manifesting already in a neglected form. In most cases, the organism quickly reacts to the presence of the disease in it. However, in order to suspect the disease in time, you need to know what symptoms of pathology give themselves. Let’s consider the main signs of urinary tract infections and their cure in more detail.


Table of contents:

  1. Features of the occurrence of disorders
  2. Why are children susceptible to disease?
  3. What is the correct therapy against infections?
  4. What are the chances of a cure?
  5. References

Features of the occurrence of disorders

problems of UTI

Urologists say that different types of microorganisms can trigger the appearance and development of inflammation in the urinary apparatus. They include:

  • bacteria (E. coli, gonococci, streptococci, etc.)
  • Candida fungi
  • viruses (herpes, papillomaviruses, cytomegalovirus)

The most common pathogen of urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli (E. coli). This bacterium belongs to opportunistic. The bacterium is a normal component of the intestinal microflora. There are several possible routes of entry and spread of pathogens in the urinary tract:

  • Descending. Movement of the pathogen from the kidneys through the ureters, the bladder to the urethra.
  • Ascending. Infectious inflammation spreads from the bottom up: from the urethra to the kidneys.
  • Hemorrhagic and lymphomatous. Contact of the pathogen through the system of body fluids (from the blood or lymph) in the presence of infectious foci in the body. For example, carious teeth, sore throat, sinusitis, pneumonia. Against the background of a running viral infection, a pathogen can penetrate the bladder mucosa
  • Contact. Unprotected sexual contact (vaginal or anal), migration over the skin from the anus, catheterization, cystoscopy.

In most cases, people suffer from infection of the urinary system due to the fact that they enter into intimacy with untested partners. In addition, urologists note the following risk factors:

  • Non-compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene
  • Long stay in the cold
  • Mechanical damage to the urinary organs
  • Low protective abilities of the body
  • Wrong metabolism
  • Transporting infectious agents from other organs
  • Anomalies of the anatomical structure
  • The presence of diseases such as vesicoureteral reflux, urine stagnation
  • Presence of foreign bodies in AIM organs

It should be noted that in the age group from 20 to 50 years, women encounter urinary tract infections more often. But in the category after 50 years, the situation is changing. At this age, the frequency of male diseases increases, such as prostatitis or adenoma. They can give a complication and spread of infection to the organs of the urinary system.

Older people are a separate risk group. Infections of the urogenital tract in them contribute to the failure of the epithelium, weakening of the general and local immunity, reduction of mucus secretion by mucous membrane cells, and microcirculation disorders.

Urinary tract infections in women develop 30 times more often than in men. This is due to some features of the structure and functioning of the female body. The wide and short urethra is located in close proximity to the vagina. This makes it available to pathogens in case of inflammation of the vulva or vagina. High risk of developing urinary tract infections in women with diabetes, hormonal and neurological disorders. All women during pregnancy are at risk of developing the disease. In addition, this group includes women who have had several abortions. Lack of personal hygiene is also a factor in the development of urinary tract inflammation.

As women age, the frequency of urinary tract infections increases. The disease is diagnosed in 1% of girls of school age, in 20% of women aged 25-30 years. The incidence reaches its peak in women older than 60 years. In the vast majority of cases, urinary tract infections in women recur. If the symptoms of pathologies reappear within a month after recovery, this indicates a lack of therapy. If the infection returns after a month after treatment, but no later than six months, urologists conclude that a re-infection has occurred. Urinary tract infections may recur. If pathologies recur, they become chronic. The reason for this outcome is the previously poor treatment carried out, or the patient’s treatment for medical assistance is too late (the advanced stage).

Why are children susceptible to disease?

UTI in children occurs when pathogenic agent enter the sterile environment of the urinary tract. In addition, urologists identify the following causes of infection:

  • Immaturity of immunity. With reduced immunity conditionally pathogenic bacteria multiply more than normal and become the cause of the disease
  • Congenital pathology of the urogenital system structure
  • Urolithiasis disorder
  • Early age of children, in boys under one-year-old and in girls up to 4-5 years old
  • Inflammation in the mother during pregnancy
  • Prolonged use of the catheter

Diseases develop more often in girls because of the structural features of the body. In girls, the anus and the urogenital system are closely spaced, in boys, the urethra is longer, and therefore there is less possibility of bacteria entering the upper urinary tract.

What is the correct therapy against infections?

The destruction of bacterial infections will be effective only with the correct diagnosis and the exact formation of the causative agent of the disease. UTIs can be found by analyzing a urine sample. The urine is examined under a microscope for bacteria or white blood cells, which are signs of infection [1].

what is the correct therapy against infections

Doctors determine the type of infection, based on clinical and laboratory studies. An accurate diagnosis can be established only after general and biochemical blood tests, urinalysis, ultrasound, and X-ray. In some cases, urologists also prescribe MRI and CT.

Most often, bacteria provoke these diseases of the urinary tract. Therefore, in the first place, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics which many common microorganisms are sensitive to. These drugs may also be effective for a fungal infection.

Floxin is one such medication. This is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Floxin is especially effective in treating infections of the urinary tract. It’s little toxic and has virtually no side effects. Therefore, urologists often prescribe Floxin to their patients.

Once you start treatment, the symptoms should start to clear up within 5 days in adults and 2 days in children [2].

Bacterial analysis can clarify the type of pathogen. If it turned out to be a virus, then doctors prescribe antiviral drugs. If there is a bacterial infection and there is no improvement from the prescribed antibiotic, the doctor can change the drug to another one, in which the active substance will be effective against a particular type of bacteria.

Antiviral or antibiotic therapy should be taken in the full course. Otherwise, the infection may not disappear completely, and then provoke a relapse, which will cause chronic disease. Usually, the duration of taking such drugs is at least 1-2 weeks. It is determined by the doctor. It should be noted that urologists use drugs from different groups of antibacterial agents:

  1. Antibiotics. It may take 3-7 days from the time the samples are submitted for analysis to obtain results that identify the pathogen. In order not to waste time, the doctor prescribes a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Most commonly, fluoroquinolones are used in the treatment of UTI.
  2. Sulfanilamide drugs. The use of sulfonamides shows high efficiency. They are excreted in the urine, showing high clinical concentrations in the urinary system, and low toxicity to the kidneys.
  3. Nitrofuran derivatives. They show high efficiency against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, blocking their cellular respiration. However, in the treatment of chronic sluggish forms, nitrofurans show weaker efficacy.

In addition to therapy, which eliminates the underlying cause of the illness, doctors may prescribe the following remedies:

  • anti-inflammatory drugs
  • antipyretic
  • analgesics (painkillers) and antispasmodics
  • tonic to support the effectiveness of the immune system
  • Phytopreparations to increase urination and accelerate tissue healing

In addition to taking medications, it is also necessary to adjust the lifestyle. The patient for some time will have to reduce the level of physical activity. It is important to go to the toilet, even if there is no urge, at intervals of two hours. To achieve rapid recovery and release of infection from the body, increase the amount of fluid consumed.

During treatment, the patient is obliged to follow a diet with restriction of the use of sour, spicy, salty foods, alcoholic and carbonated drinks, coffee and chocolate. These foods, changing the pH of urine, can cause irritation of the mucous membrane of the urinary system. Sometimes the patient requires hospitalization (for acute symptoms or for a younger child). It is worth remembering that self-medication with antibiotics is not only ineffective for viral diseases but can also lead to complications in other organs!

What are the chances of a cure?

Urinary tract infections, affecting the mucous membrane, can cause serious consequences for the whole body. Painful sensations, frequent urge to urinate greatly impair the quality of life of the patient. Against the background of progressive pyelonephritis, renal failure, deformity of the ureters (kidney prolapse), impaired urinary excretion (reflux) can develop. The transfer of UTIs when carrying a child can cause spontaneous abortion at any time.

However, if you consult a doctor in time and do not refuse his prescriptions, most of these diseases can be treated without subsequent complications. The prognosis worsens when the patient tries to heal the illness on his own The prognosis for recovery.

Urinary tract infections, affecting the mucous membrane, can cause serious consequences for the whole body. Painful sensations, frequent urge to urinate greatly impair the quality of life of the patient. Against the background of progressive pyelonephritis, renal failure, deformity of the ureters (kidney prolapse), impaired urinary excretion (reflux) can develop. The transfer of UTIs when carrying a child can cause spontaneous abortion at any time.

However, if you consult a doctor in time and do not refuse his prescriptions, most of these diseases can be treated without subsequent complications. The prognosis worsens when the patient for a long time tries to heal the illness on his own or takes no action at all. After such a long delay, even specialized medical care may be ineffective, but still necessary.

Preventive measures to prevent UTIs consist of correcting lifestyles and following some rules:

  • timely treatment of infectious foci in the body
  • compliance with hygiene standards
  • prevent overcooling of the body
  • empty the bladder in time
  • condom use during intercourse

But without performing medical appointments, ignoring the symptoms of the disease, it is possible to cause the disease to spread to neighboring organs, provoke the transition of UTI to the chronic form. Urinary tract infections are not a strict indication for hospitalization of the patient, outpatient treatment shows high efficacy with timely referral to a doctor.

References

[1] Read more facts about bacterial UTI by the link https://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/urinary-tract-infections-in-adults

[2] Check page https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/urinary-tract-infections-utis/ and know additional information about the treatment of the infections of the urinary tract

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