Infectious dermatitis: symptoms, causes, and treatment

Dermatitis is a very common and unpleasant skin disease. It brings both physical and psychological discomfort. Various types of pathology differ in the causes of occurrence and development. In this article, we will consider the features of infectious dermatitis. Its symptoms, causes, treatment methods, etc.


Table of contents:

  1. What is infectious dermatitis?
  2. Bacteria as a causative agent of skin infection
  3. What are the causes of infectious dermatitis?
  4. What are the symptoms of skin infection?
  5. Classification of Infectious Dermatitis
  6. What are the complications of infectious dermatitis?
  7. Diagnostic methods for skin pathology
  8. How to treat infectious dermatitis?
  9. What is Furacin?
  10. What is the form of release?
  11. How to use medication?
  12. What are the side effects of the Furacin?
  13. Prevention of infectious dermatitis
  14. References

Dermatitis is a skin disease caused by various external or internal factors. External factors include chemical, biological, or physical effects on the skin. Internal factors are a nervous shock or an autoimmune reaction of the body. Almost everyone knows what dermatitis is since the disease is widespread and has a diverse etiology. Depending on the cause of the lesion, localization, and type of rash, specialists distinguish the following types of dermatitis:

  • infectious – purulent ulcers are formed caused by harmful bacteria
  • fungal (demodicosis) – the causative agent of the disease is a microscopic tick Demodex. The disease occurs when the protective properties of the skin are reduced
  • bullous – blisters are formed on the surface of the skin, filled with serous or bloody contents. After ripening, they burst, ulcers form at the site of the rash
  • ear – the disease proceeds in acute and chronic form. It is characterized by severe itching and is complicated by damage to the auditory canals
  • food – in children, it manifests itself in the form of a rash and itching, in adults it is digestive upset, itchy skin without a rash, weakness, swelling

What is infectious dermatitis?

Infectious dermatitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the skin. Various factors can provoke the development of the dermatitis. If the development of dermatitis is caused by various pathogenic microorganisms, then it is called infectious. It accounts for a quarter of the total number of all dermatitis.

Bacteria as a causative agent of skin infection

Microbes can be located directly on the skin or penetrate the body, releasing substances that have toxic effects on the skin. Pathology can develop independently, but more often accompanies a variety of infectious ailments: measles, yersiniosis, erysipelas, rubella, chickenpox, staphyloderma, scarlet fever, impetigo, pseudotuberculosis, syphilis.

Even with very close contact with the patient, it is impossible to get infected dermatitis. However, infection with major diseases is possible, which can occur in different ways. Dermatitis itself is harmless, a threat to health, and sometimes life is the main infection that has settled in the body.

Most of all, fear of meningococcal infection (characterized by a high mortality rate), herpes zoster and chickenpox (capable of provoking brain pathologies). During pregnancy, enterovirus infection and rubella, which often cause fetal malformations, spontaneous miscarriages, and stillbirths, can cause very serious harm to the body.

If you do not consult a doctor on time, then the dermatitis can become chronic. Besides, areas with increased or insufficient pigmentation may remain on the skin, which significantly spoils the appearance, especially when localizing spots on the face.

What are the causes of infectious dermatitis?

In general, infectious dermatitis is formed against various infections that affect epithelial tissue or are transmitted through sexual intimacy. A variety of microscopic organisms can become causative agents of the disease: fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoa. However, experts identify the following factors that increase the risk of the dermatitis.

  • effects on the body of elevated or low temperatures
  • deep skin injuries and microscopic cracks
  • long-term medication
  • varicose veins
  • immunodeficiency
  • prolonged intoxication
  • chronic digestive system diseases
  • failures in the functioning of the nervous system
  • kidney pathology
  • diabetes
  • not maintaining hygiene requirements
  • individual body immunity to bacteria that cause decay

Common risk factors for dermatitis include [1]:

  • Age. Dermatitis can occur at any age, but atopic dermatitis (eczema) usually begins in infancy
  • Allergies and asthma. People who have a personal or family history of eczema, allergies, hay fever or asthma are more likely to develop atopic dermatitis
  • Occupation. Jobs that put you in contact with certain metals, solvents or cleaning supplies increase your risk of contact dermatitis. Being a health care worker is linked to hand eczema
  • Health conditions. Health conditions that put you at increased risk of seborrheic dermatitis include congestive heart failure, Parkinson’s disease and HIV/AIDS

what are the causes of infectious dermatitis

What are the symptoms of skin infection?

Manifestations of infectious dermatitis are visible on the skin. They are particularly diverse and depend on the underlying infection. They can vary in shape and size. Sometimes the skin is covered with blisters. With nodular dermatitis, rashes are represented by nodules. In addition to the rash, infected dermatitis is characterized by a high fever. In the case of fungal infections, the affected areas change color, peeling, and itching is noted. It is worth noting that the symptoms of the dermatitis depend on the causes that caused the development of dermatitis.

Classification of Infectious Dermatitis

Specialists distinguish several types of bacterial dermatitis:

  • fungal. Usually, pathological changes develop under the influence of Candida fungus, but Trichophyton, Actinomycete fungus, fungus provoking the development of pityriasis Versicolor can occur
  • bacterial. Most diseases are caused by streptococcus bacteria and staphylococci. They rapidly multiply in the epidermis. However, oddly enough, this type of dermatitis is almost independent of body hygiene
  • parasitic or protozoal. It is provoked by scabies itching – a microscopic parasite that causes scabies, and rickettsia a specific microorganism (combine the properties of bacteria and viruses), which are the causative agents of typhus
  • viral (in children this type of disease is usually diagnosed) it is accompanied measles, rubella, chickenpox, enterovirus infection

What are the complications of infectious dermatitis?

To begin with, it is worth saying that in most cases the disease is well treatable. Complications occur only with improper therapy or in the absence thereof. Risk factors include a highly weakened immune system.

The most common complications include the appearance of scars and scars on the skin. This is due to the constant combing of skin tissues. In rare cases, patients after some time develop chronic dermatitis. The infectious process is replaced by a sluggish current inflammation. In some cases, the infection can spread to the deeper layers of the skin, which leads to more complex lesions.

Diagnostic methods for skin pathology

Diagnosis of infectious dermatitis, unfortunately, is quite often associated with some difficulties, since it is not always possible to detect the presence of a problem on time. As already mentioned, skin damage is a secondary disease and rarely occurs by itself.

An external examination is usually enough to suspect the presence of dermatitis and its causes. Naturally, then the dermatologist conducts laboratory tests. Blood samples are taken for analysis (an increased number of leukocytes indicates the presence of an inflammatory process in the body), as well as scraping from the skin, the fluid contained in the papules, etc. It is important not only to determine the presence of the disease and make a diagnosis but also to find out the nature of the pathogen and his reaction to certain drugs. The more information was collected during the diagnosis, the easier and faster the therapy will go.

How to treat infectious dermatitis?

Therapy is often associated with some difficulties since far from all cases it is possible to determine the cause of the appearance of rashes. If it is possible to determine the nature of the pathogen, then, following the results of the tests, patients are prescribed antiviral or antifungal agents, topical antibiotics, for example, Furacin. Sometimes immunomodulators are additionally used that strengthen the immune system.

Naturally, local treatment is also necessary. Sometimes doctors recommend treating affected skin with antiseptic agents (for example, a solution of methylene blue). In more severe cases, patients have prescribed ointments based on glucocorticosteroids, which help to quickly eliminate the inflammatory process.

In the treatment of infectious dermatitis in children under two years of age, as well as with mild symptoms, the location of the rash on the face, first-class corticosteroids with low activity are prescribed.

What is Furacin?

Furacin is an effective antibacterial agent that has been proven effective by time. The ointment has a pronounced antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and decongestant effect. Among antimicrobials, Furacin has a special position. Due to its effective antimicrobial effect, low cost, and a wide spectrum of action, it is used everywhere for the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases. The main active ingredient of the drug is Nitrofural. It is included in the clinical and pharmacological group of antiseptics for topical application.

Furacin ointment is a topical preparation. Getting on the skin, the ointment is evenly distributed over the skin of the treated area. The product is quickly absorbed into the skin. Furacin has a destructive effect on bacteria of various structures. Pathogens die. After absorption into the skin, the distribution of the agent throughout the tissues occurs evenly. 6 hours after ingestion, the drug is excreted by the kidneys with urine.

During treatment with Furacilin ointment, the following therapeutic effects are noted:

  • inflammatory processes of any severity slow down and then stop
  • pain, burning sensation subside, swelling resolves
  • blood circulation in damaged tissues is accelerated, nutrient reserves are replenished
  • dermis and epidermis are restored due to accelerated cell division

Furacin has no wide list of contraindications, adverse reactions during treatment rarely develop. Nevertheless, the ointment should be used in agreement with the doctor! A dermatologist or traumatologist will calculate individual dosages, determine the duration of the therapeutic course.

how to treat infectious dermatitis

What is the form of release?

The product has a creamy texture. It has a yellowish tint. The drug is packaged in aluminum tubes. There is 25 g of ointment in one package. Tubes are placed in packs of cardboard. The composition of the medicine includes only two components: Nitrofural and petrolatum.

How to use medication?

You need to prepare the treated area before applying the ointment. If there is no pus, then it is enough to wash the surface with soap or treat with a cleansing cosmetic product, and dry. If contact with water or other liquids is undesirable, simply wipe the application area with a dry, clean paper handkerchief to avoid mixing the ointment with dust particles.

In the presence of pus, all pus must be removed. If there are cracks or wounds on the surface of the skin of your hands, wear latex or disposable protective gloves. With burns, frostbite and pressure sores, the ointment is applied to the skin with a light thin layer, locally. Do not rub with force. If possible, leave the site open. If necessary, apply a gauze bandage on top.

If the disease affects the eyes, then Furacin ointment is applied along the edges of the eyelids to avoid contact with the mucous membrane. The application in the case of open deep bleeding wounds is the same: the product is distributed only along the edges of the wound so that internal tissues are not affected.

What are the side effects of the Furacin?

Side effects include allergic reactions, inflammation of the skin. Symptoms are as follows: itching, rashes, redness on the skin, profuse tearing and itching of the mucous membranes and eyelids (if ointment was applied around the edges of the eyes), redness of the eyelids and swelling. If the drug was placed in the nasal cavity, then there may be difficulties with inhaling and exhaling air, itching and sometimes hurting in the nose, nostrils swell and redden. In the treatment of boils in the external ear canal, a constant feeling of itching, slight aching pain is possible.

If these signs are detected, wash the affected area with plenty of warm water or carefully remove the product with antiseptics. Take Furacin ointment. If symptoms worsen or temperature rises, seek medical attention immediately. After removing the symptoms, visit your doctor for advice on further treatment.

Also, patients noted symptoms such as urges to nausea, dizziness, aversion to food. Such conditions require symptomatic treatment, so to remove them you also need to consult a doctor.

Not quite a common case is sores in the mouth with stomatitis. Usually, the drug is prescribed only in proportion to other medicines. If the patient independently applied the drug in pure form, vomiting is possible. Do not use the medicine without consulting your healthcare professional.

Prevention of infectious dermatitis

Many people are interested in the question of whether it is possible to somehow prevent the development of a disease such as dermatitis. Infectious dermatitis gives the patient many inconveniences. Unfortunately, no means can permanently protect the body from infection. Nevertheless, if you avoid contact with pathogenic organisms, adhere to the rules of personal hygiene and consult a doctor in time, you can reduce the likelihood of developing an ailment or its complications. Preventive measures also include proper nutrition, physical activity, everything that can strengthen the immune system. The only way to prevent infected dermatitis is to vaccinate against major infections.

Preventive measures for dermatitis are aimed at the prolongation of the remission period. There are 4 types of this disease: contact, atopic, seborrheic and allergic dermatitis. Each of them requires the following specific rules [2].

If you detect the slightest symptoms of infectious dermatitis, you should consult a specialist for diagnosis and treatment.

References

[1] Check https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/dermatitis-eczema/symptoms-causes/syc-20352380 and read about Dermatitis

[2] More information about diagnosis and treatment of Dermatitis by the link https://adviceforskincare.blogspot.com/2019/01/dermatitis-diagnosis-and-treatment.html

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