Salmonellosis is an acute infectious disease caused by salmonella. This infection is widespread everywhere, both adults and children suffer from it. In most cases, salmonellosis occurs with gastrointestinal upsets, symptoms of dehydration and intoxication. Let’s consider that disease in more detail, its transmission methods, and why it is important to start treatment after the first signs appear.
Table of contents:
- Why are Salmonella bacteria dangerous?
- Is Salmonella getting ready to become a super-bacteria?
- Complications of the disease
- What are the sources of Salmonellosis?
- Features of Salmonellosis in pregnant women
- What are the symptoms of the disease?
- How to diagnose a Salmonellosis?
- How to treat Salmonellosis?
- What to do if there is a dehydration process?
- How to restore intestinal microflora?
- What is Chloromycetin?
- What is the form of release?
- How to take an antibiotic?
- What are the side effects?
- How not to get salmonellosis?
- Useful links
Salmonellosis is an acute infectious intestinal disease caused by various types of the genus Salmonella bacteria. The bacterium affects the gastrointestinal tract. Sometimes the disease can occur with typhoid-like symptoms. Medicine knows about 2 thousand varieties of salmonella. In the feces of animals, these bacteria can persist for three years, in water for up to four months.
Typically, people with salmonella infection have no symptoms. Others develop diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps within eight to 72 hours .
Why are Salmonella bacteria dangerous?
Salmonella is a very dangerous anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. It is known for the vitality and environmental sustainability. The bacterium does not die either at high or at low temperatures. Bacteria of this kind can live in the soil for 1.5 years, in cold / warm water for 6 months, in meat and fish for 6 months, in poultry for 1.5 years, in dairy products for 20 days, in eggs for 24 days. However, if salmonella is processed at a temperature of over 70 degrees for more than 5 minutes, then it dies. It will take much longer to process meat products.
Doctors do not recommend eating raw chicken eggs, it is best to cook them. In this case, the bacterium dies within 5 minutes of cooking. In dairy products, the Salmonella bacterium begins to multiply especially actively. Moreover, the taste characteristics of the product do not deteriorate. If you freeze meat or fish with salmonella, it will only extend the life of the bacteria.
It is worth noting that a harmful infectious microorganism dies under the influence of antibiotics and chlorine-containing disinfectant solutions. However, many Salmonella strains are resistant to antibiotics.
Outbreaks of salmonellosis predominantly last long enough. Moreover, the infection has a fairly high mortality rate. Often these outbreaks occur in the warm season.
Is Salmonella getting ready to become a super-bacteria?
Any outbreak of salmonellosis inevitably leads to the spread of infection in other parts of the world. However, this time the problem is not even in the epidemic itself. The fact is that Salmonella is not the same as 10 or, especially, 20 years ago. It mutates and becomes more aggressive.
Researchers have argued that Salmonella has been mutating especially rapidly lately. In the arms race between bacteria and humans, the bacterium begins to win, more and more powerful strains appear. This has already been proven through genetic research. The intensification of epidemics indirectly confirms these findings.
Doctors annually register about 93.8 million cases of salmonellosis. This leads to approximately 155 thousand deaths.
Complications of the disease
Salmonellosis is a very serious acute infectious disease that can result in death. In the absence of timely treatment, patients develop an infectious toxic shock. Acute hepatic and renal failure appears. Acute hepatic and renal failure appears. Internal organs begin to rot and die. The death of the patient comes.
What are the sources of Salmonellosis?
The primary source of salmonellosis is farm animals – cattle, pigs, horses, sheep, as well as waterfowl, in which salmonellosis is asymptomatic. These animals have been able to isolate the pathogen with urine, feces, milk, saliva for years and be a source of infection for the person caring for them during transportation, processing, and storage of carcasses. Recently, unfavorable sanitary conditions for the maintenance of chickens have led to an increase in cases of infection of people with salmonellosis through chicken eggs.
A source of infection for a person is either a patient with salmonellosis or a bacteriocarrier that has no signs of the disease. When infected from person to person, the transmission mechanism is mainly fecal-oral, that is, through dirty hands, only in rare cases, contact-household – when caring for patients. A large percentage of human infection cases occurs through food products – poultry, animal, fish meat, prepared thermally unprocessed products – salads, fruits, etc. An important feature is that salmonella, being directly in food products, do not contribute to a change in their appearance, due to which the risk of possible infection increases.
Salmonellosis in pregnant women, the elderly and newborns is very difficult. This can lead to severe generalized forms of salmonellosis, the treatment of which in children presents serious difficulties. As the child grows, his susceptibility to salmonella decreases. Any intestinal infections have seasonal fluctuations, so epidemiological outbreaks are most often observed in the hot, warm season.
People are highly susceptible to salmonellosis. The severity of the developed infection depends on a complex of factors, both external (the number of pathogens entering the body) and internal (the state of the protective systems of the human body, associated pathologies).
Features of Salmonellosis in pregnant women
Let’s consider the features of the development of an infectious disease in pregnant women.
- A woman has weaker immunity during pregnancy, therefore, the likelihood of contracting salmonellosis and other infections is higher
- Intoxication and dehydration develop much faster. They exacerbate toxicosis and other pathological conditions
- Salmonella can cross the placenta and infect the fetus. This is a great danger
- Many medications used to treat salmonellosis are contraindicated during pregnancy
- In this regard, the treatment of salmonellosis in pregnant women, on the one hand, should be as effective as possible and, at the same time, very accurate so as not to harm the baby
It is worth noting that before the gestational age of 5 months, a woman should be treated only in the hospital.
What are the symptoms of the disease?
The incubation period of salmonellosis is an average of 6-48 hours. The clinical signs of salmonellosis depend on the form of the disease.
When bacteria enter the gastrointestinal tract, a person’s water-salt balance is disturbed. Body poisoning occurs. A severe headache begins. The patient has muscle aches. There is a weakness in the whole body. The temperature rises rapidly. The patient complains of cramping abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. Moreover, feces differ in their character – visually they resemble foam. They contain a large amount of water, fetid and have a green color. The abundance of fluid released through vomiting and diarrhea is so great that a person after a few hours begins to suffer from dehydration.
The patient has very pale skin, dry tongue, bloating and tenderness of the abdomen. Besides, there is a violation of cardiovascular activity with the development of tachycardia, arterial hypotension. The general condition of the patient is severe.
The patient may suffer from chills, insomnia or cramps. In the absence of timely treatment, the salmonella bacterium begins to affect not only the gastrointestinal tract but also the pelvic organs, the bladder (cystitis or pyelonephritis occurs).
How to diagnose a Salmonellosis?
To diagnose salmonellosis, various tests must be performed. First, the doctor will examine the patient and find out what symptoms of the disease have manifested. The doctor can feel the stomach, examine the skin, measure temperature, and blood pressure. After that, the specialist will decide which laboratory diagnostic methods are needed to clarify salmonellosis. These may be the following tests:
- seeding for salmonellosis
- antibiotic gram
- serological examination
Most often, to issue a prescription for treatment, a doctor is enough to familiarize himself with the results of the bacteriological culture. Blood, urine, bile, and even vomit can be taken for research.
How to treat Salmonellosis?
Diagnosis of the disease plays an important role in the selection of therapy. In general, salmonellosis is like any other gastrointestinal upset. This serves as an additional risk factor because people do not always consult a doctor on time, hoping that the disorder will pass by itself. Treatment should not be exclusively symptomatic. Therapy includes the following methods:
- Antibiotic therapy. Specific drugs effectively work against the pathogen, for example, antibiotics, such as Chloromycetin. An appointment is correlated depending on age, body weight, and other factors, for example, allergies. Doctors rarely use antibiotics, mainly in severe cases. This is because most Salmonella strains are resistant to antibiotics. Antibiotics are used only as directed by your doctor
- For general intoxication, infectious disease specialists recommend an intravenous infusion using fluoroquinolone drugs
- Experts recommend therapy to remove toxins (Salmonella’s waste products). This implies the use of adsorbent agents
- In severe cases, doctors carry out general detoxification therapy with saline, which is also aimed at eliminating dehydration
- Gastric enzymes perform well
Treatment should be carried out in a hospital, as the disease can not only be potentially life-threatening, but also contagious in the domestic environment. Doctors additionally prescribe diet therapy, bed rest until the normal functioning of the digestive tract is restored.
Adult patients should adhere to a therapeutic diet for a month. For children and the elderly, this period can be extended, depending on the individual condition of the body.
A fatal outcome is observed only in 0.25% of cases of salmonella infection. After the disease, the patient develops immunity for at least 10 months. After this, re-infection is possible.
What to do if there is a dehydration process?
In the treatment of infection, the main emphasis is on rehydration and the removal of intoxication in patients. With prolonged diarrhea, special saline solutions are used to correct dehydration. These solutions should be drunk often, a few sips at a time. An adult should drink 300 ml every hour for 6 hours, in the future, after each stool, drink another 100-200 ml.
How to restore intestinal microflora?
To normalize the function of the digestive system, doctors can prescribe enzyme preparations. To restore microflora and prevent intestinal dysbiosis that occurs with salmonellosis, probiotics are prescribed after an acute period, the intake of which should be at least 20 days. Also, the patient must follow a diet that excludes fatty, canned foods, confectionery, raw fruits, milk. If there are no allergic reactions to medicinal plants, you can drink the following anti-inflammatory natural herbs: calendula, sage, chamomile, etc.
What is Chloromycetin?
Chloromycetin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that fights various bacterial pathogens. The drug is highly effective against infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, including salmonellosis in a generalized form. The main active ingredient is Chloramphenicol. Chloromycetin is active against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria but does not affect acid-resistant bacteria. The resistance of microorganisms develops slowly. The antibiotic penetrates well into body fluids and tissues. Its highest concentrations are created in the liver and kidneys.
What is the form of release?
Pharmacological companies produce Chloromycetin in the form of pills with a dosage of 250 mg or 500 mg. Pills in packs in blisters. The number of pills in 1 package varies from 30 to 360 pcs. Chloromycetin is packaged in an environmentally friendly package.
How to take an antibiotic?
The treatment regimen and duration depends on the development of the disease. The attending physician determines it individually. However, the patient should take Chloromycetin 30 minutes before a meal or an hour after it. The duration of an antibiotic treatment usually lasts from one week to 10 days (14 days maximum). The recommended dosage for adults is 0.5-1 g. In severe infections, in a hospital setting, a dose increase of up to 3-4 g / day is possible. The maximum daily dose is 4g.
In case of an overdose, the following symptoms may appear: a decrease in body temperature, confused breathing, cardiovascular failure, and the absence of reactions to external stimuli. Chloromycetin is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation.
What are the side effects?
Chloromycetin is a low toxic antibiotic. This means that it rarely causes side effects. However, due to individual intolerance, the following unpleasant effects may occur:
In the event of the first symptoms of antibiotic rejection by the body, the patient should stop taking it. Besides, the patient must inform the attending physician about this. Only a specialist can replace an antibiotic with another drug. Self-medication is not permissible!
How not to get salmonellosis?
Taking steps to prevent getting a salmonella infection can save you and your family from being one of the 1.2 million people in the United States who contract this illness each year .
Doctors say that any disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Therefore, there are some rules that many people follow for the prevention of any intestinal infections, including salmonellosis:
- Wash your hands before eating. The most important rule, familiar from childhood. It is the most effective rule for the prevention of salmonellosis and other intestinal infections
- Use a separate knife for raw meat and fish. This also applies to the cutting board, which, together with the knife, should be washed and rinsed thoroughly with boiling water after use
- Do not eat poorly cooked meat. Cook meat and poultry for at least 1 hour
- Only drink boiled milk
- Avoid catering in dubious establishments during the summer
Subject to these simple rules, the probability of salmonellosis is minimal. Observe them and you will never get this dangerous infectious disease.
 Additional information about Salmonella infection by the link https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/salmonella/symptoms-causes/syc-20355329
 Check the resource https://www.verywellhealth.com/salmonella-prevention-1298788 and know how to prevent Salmonellosis