Respiratory Bacterial Infections

Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a group of infectious diseases caused by various infectious agents with airborne and contact transmission, which are characterized by acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract at various levels. The incubation period of bacterial infection is from 2 to 14 days. The cause of the disease may be fatigue, stress, and hypothermia.

Respiratory bacterial infections are divided into the upper respiratory tract diseases and lower respiratory tract diseases. Here are the most common of them:

  • Pneumococcus is the most common bacterial pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia. S. pneumoniae is the causative agent of a wide range of invasive and non-invasive human infections, including meningitis, bacteremia, pneumonia, ENT diseases (otitis media, rhinosinusitis), exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Haemophilus influenzae is the second most common bacterial pathogen of respiratory infections after pneumococcus. Infections can be divided into invasive (meningitis, epiglottitis, septic arthritis, etc.) and non-invasive; the latter include such common respiratory infections as otitis media, rhinosinusitis, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Streptococcus pyogenes is one of the most common bacterial pathogens of the upper respiratory tract infections, primarily tonsillopharyngitis, scarlet fever. It can cause acute otitis media and rhinosinusitis, skin and soft tissue infections.
  • M. pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia in adults.
  • C. pneumoniae – a relevant agent of various respiratory infections. The most frequent are community-acquired pneumonia and acute bronchitis. C. pneumoniae can be an etiological agent of tonsillopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, acute otitis media, cause exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • L. pneumophila causes the disease in two clinical forms – Pontiac fever and legionellosis pneumonia or Legionnaire disease.

Common respiratory infections symptoms include: edema and burning in the nose, fever, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, pain in the chest, loss of appetite, a cough, stuffy nose, fever, feeling tired, a headache, muscle pain.

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